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Remember, Windows 10 is a hybrid between a system for touch screen tablets and phones and desktop PCs
The idea is to have the same interface and user settings over all the Microsoft devices a user owns.
This is evident right from when you start up.

Lock Screen:

This is the screen you see when you startup, or when the PC locks automatically after you haven’t been using it for a while, or when you are signed out and its been idle for one minute. You will need to dismiss (get rid of) the lock screen to be able to see the Login screen and sign in to Windows. Users can dismiss the lock screen using touch (swipe up from the bottom) if you have a touch screen !, Press any (??) key on the keyboard - Spacebar and Enter seem to work..Using a mouse: try dragging up from the bottom, Clicking on the screen sometimes works !

This is really for tablets and phones, so that you can see e-mail and text message notifications, date and time, take a picture etc. before having to log in.

It doesn't do much that's useful on a PC and can de disabled (next time !)

Login Screen:

If it looks like this:
FRED
Password (or not)
you have a Local Account.
Features :You can install programs, customise settings etc as with older versions of Windows.


If it looks like this:
fredbloggs@gmail.com
Password:
you have a Microsoft Account

Password is obligatory - need not /SHOULD not be the same as your gmail or Yahoo account (but it will be the same if you use Hotmail, live.com or outlook.com which are all Microsoft things).
Features:
Everything a local account does (see above) and...
Enables you to download apps from the Microsoft App store / sync everything across all your Microsoft devices (phone, tablet, PC) / Microsoft Cloud and to use Cortana.

http://www.7tutorials.com/should-you-use-local-or-microsoft-account-windows-10

Desktop: Pretty much the same as for your previous version of Windows. If you have upgraded will have your old wallpaper and icons on it. To change Desktop settings right-click on the desktop.
Can change the size of text, apps, and other items (next time !)

Taskbar:
Along the bottom:
RHS: Notification area (or System Tray) -
LHS: Start Menu Button (Windows logo), Search Box, and Task View button.

In the Middle: Shortcuts to programs and folders which have been stuck there: "pinned" .
Programs which are running are also shown here, and have a coloured highlight line (accent) underneath. Hover the mouse over an active app icon to see a thumbnail of its window, and click on it to bring it to the front.
Right click on it to see a menu of tasks related to this programme (e.g. a Browser such as Chrome will show you links to most visited sites, and recently closed tabs .)

You can change colour of the highlight ( next time !)

Let us start with the "Start" Menu button:

Left - Click on Start Menu Button (or press the Windows key)

A menu with two sections: Left Side-Bar and Right side-bar
Left Side-bar:
Several components: User name + picture and list of most used programmes and apps ( latter changes automatically).
Right arrow points to "Jump List" - list of documents most recently edited with that programme or app.

Below that some useful buttons:
Downloads: Downloads folder: Things you have downloaded from the Internet.
File Explorer: Goes to Quick Access view of most recently accessed files and frequently used folders. You can add files and folders to this list. Button also has a Jump list of "pinned" (important) folders and those most recently used. Note: The folder icon on the taskbar also goes to the "quick Access" view
Settings: Opens up a window of nine categories of Windows settings.
Note: You can get to this quickly via pressing the Windows key+the letter I
Power: Sleep, Shut down, re-start. There is no "hibernate" : but you can add it (next time !)
All Apps: Alphabetically arranged list of Windows Apps and your old application programs installed in the PC.
This list is like the "Apps" screens on a smartphone. You cannot re-arrange this list, but you can put shortcuts to the apps and application programs you want to use by right-clicking and selecting: Pin to Start, Pin to Taskbar. Can also Uninstall from here.
Windows 7 upgraders will find that many of the Apps (such as News, Groove Music, Money) are new, Windows 8 users will find them familiar as "Metro" Apps.

They can now all run in a Window (in Windows 8 the Metro Apps were full screen).

If you pin an App to Start, it appears as a tile in the right hand panel of the Start menu.

Right-Click on Start Menu Button
Launches the "Power users" menu: Basically, shortcuts to Control panel and control panel options for quick access by geeky JCC gurus.

Right Side-bar of Start Menu
Contains Start menu Tiles which are shortcuts to Apps, programs, settings and folders. You can add, remove, resize and re-arrange these tiles, create groups and tiles and re-name the groups, have the whole thing full screen (Like Win 8 Metro ties) . This is basically a replacement for the customisable Start Menu of older versions of Windows. (More on this Next Time)

Search Box
This search feature is tied in with Microsoft's "intelligent digital assistant" Cortana. Their equivalent to Apple's "Siri" and Google's "Google Now".
Seems to work to some degree even if you are logged in with a Local account.

To activate the Search box: Click in it, or on the Start Button, (or press the Windows Key and the letter S on the keyboard) the box colour changes and the typing cursor appears in the box.

It will search for things on your computer and the Internet...
Type "Internet"
Best Match is Internet Explorer, also shows Edge browser, Settings and some links to Internet apps on the Web. (huh - no Firefox or Chrome browser !)
Tip: To get quick access to Internet Explorer, right click on it in the "Internet Explorer" search result and select Pin to Start, or Pin to Taskbar...

If you want to put a shortcut on the Desktop, drag and drop the tile or menu icon onto the desktop.

If you don't use the Search box or find it's too big, you can make it smaller or get rid of it (Next time !)

Task View Button
Shows thumbnails of the windows of all the application programmes and Apps which are running. Click on the one you want to use to bring it to the front.
Right click on a thumbnail to Close the App or move it to a "New Desktop" . A virtual second desktop which you can put windows on. Remember where it's gone ! - (more on "New Desktops next time...)

TaskBar Icons
There is a "Default set" of icons (explain the meaning of "default" : That which windows chooses for you or puts there or unless you tell it anything different.)

Notification Area (Sometimes called System Tray):

Default icons:

At the bottom:

You may have other icons in the Notification area showing stuff like Dropbox, Google Drive and Onedrive which work in the background keeping your documents on your PC synchronised with documents in your Cloud Storage

Right Click on the Taskbar to show a menu of various Taskbar Options .